Wed Sep 3 12:32:21 SGT 2014  
    Yellow Fever Vaccine, Nigeria

Yellow Fever Vaccine, Nigeria


Yellow Fever Vaccine, Nigeria @beautynigeria_com: Live attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine jab/shot/injection schedule, to vaccinate against the Yellow fever virus, to immunise against Yellow fever

Keywords: Yellow Fever Vaccine Nigeria, Nigeria Yellow Fever Vaccine, Yellow Fever Vaccine.


The 17D vaccine, which is based on a live, attenuated viral strain, is the only commercially available yellow fever vaccine. It is given as a single subcutaneous (or intramuscular) injection. Yellow fever vaccine is highly effective (approaching 100%). All individuals aged 9 months or older and living in countries or areas at risk should receive yellow fever vaccine.

Precautions and contraindications

With the exception of very rare cases of vaccine-associated neurotropic and viscerotropic disease (see below), the 17D vaccine is generally considered to be safe. However, some vaccine recipients develop mild systemic reactions, including myalgia and headache. Contraindications include true allergy to egg protein, immunodeficiency (congenital or acquired) and symptomatic HIV infection (Chapter 9). There is a theoretical risk of harm to the fetus if the vaccine is given during pregnancy and vaccination of nursing mothers should be avoided because of the risk for the transmission of 17D virus to and encephalitis in the breast-fed infant.These risks must be weighed against the risk to the mother of remaining unvaccinated and travelling to an area where exposure to YFV may occur. In general, unvaccinated pregnant or nursing women should be advised not to travel to such areas.

Hypersensitivity reactions are rare, particularly anaphylactic reactions. However, the vaccine is produced in embryonated chicken eggs and is contraindicated in persons with a history of oral egg intolerance or strong allergic reactions to egg-based products.

Encephalitis has been reported as a rare event following vaccination, principally in infants under 6 months of age. As a result, the vaccine is contraindicated in infants under 6 months of age and is not recommended for those aged 6–8 months, except during epidemics when the risk of YFV transmission may be very high.

Vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease is a recently described adverse event that on very rare occasions has occurred after the first immunization with the yellow fever 17D vaccine. Onset is within 10 days of vaccination and the pathological process is characterized by severe multi-organ failure and an overall case—fatality rate in excess of 60%. Known risk factors include a history of thymus disease (e.g. thymoma or thymectomy) and age ≥ 60 years. In the United Sates, the risk for people aged ≥ 70 years of contracting viscerotropic disease after receiving vaccination against yellow fever is estimated to be 2.4 cases/100 000 vaccine doses.

Increased incidence of vaccine-associated neurotropic disease (e.g. meningoencephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome) has been reported in infants under 6 months of age and in vaccine recipients aged ≥60 years . The reported rate of vaccine-associated neurotropic disease in travellers from the United States and Europe ranges between 0.13 and 0.8 per 100 000 doses.

Yellow fever vaccination is required for travellers to certain countries and recommended for all travellers to countries or areas with risk of yellow fever transmission (see Country list and Annex 1). The risk to unvaccinated individuals who visit countries or areas where there may be yellow fever transmission is often greater than the risk of a vaccine-related adverse event. While yellow fever vaccination should be encouraged as a key prevention strategy, it is important to screen travel itineraries and carefully evaluate the potential risk of systemic illness after yellow fever vaccination. Great care should be exercised not to prescribe yellow fever vaccination to individuals who are not at risk of exposure to infection, based on an accurate assessment of the travel itinerary. Although vaccination is generally not recommended for travellers going to areas where the risk of exposure is low, any risk (e.g. as a result of prolonged travel or heavy exposure to mosquito bites) should be weighed against individual risk factors for vaccine-associated adverse events (e.g. altered immune status).

Type of vaccine: Live, attenuated

Number of doses: One dose of 0.5 ml

Booster: Currently every 10 years (if re-certification is needed)

Contraindications: Infants aged less than 6 months; history of allergy to egg or to any of the vaccine components, or hypersensitivity to a previous dose of the vaccine; thymoma or history of thymectomy, immunodeficiency from medication, disease or symptomatic HIV infection.

Adverse reactions: Rarely, neurological (encephalitis) or multi-organ failure resembling wild-type yellow fever

Before departure: International certificate of vaccination becomes valid 10 days after vaccination.

Recommended for: All travellers to countries and areas with risk of yellow fever transmission and when required by countries.

Special precautions: Not recommended for infants aged 6-8 months, except during epidemics when the risk of YF virus transmission may be very high. The risks and benefits of vaccination in this age group should be carefully considered before vaccination. The vaccine should be avoided during pregnancy or breastfeeding. However, pregnant or nursing women may be vaccinated during epidemics or if traveling to country or area a risk of transmission is unavoidable.

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Latest News

Advice on Malaria and Yellow Fever Prevention Provided at Travel Agencies in Cuzco, Peru
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 | Journal of Travel Medicine
ConclusionsThe majority of registered travel agencies in Cuzco did not provide sufficient and accurate information regarding risk and prevention of malaria and yellow fever to travelers inquiring about trips to the southern Amazon of Peru. (Source: Journal of Travel Medicine)

The biography of the immune system and the control of cancer: from St Peregrine to contemporary vaccination strategies
Sat, 16 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 | BMC Cancer
DiscussionIt is claimed that, as a result of recent observational studies, measures for prevention of some malignancies such as melanoma and certain forms of leukaemia are already at hand: vaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) of new-borns and vaccination with the yellow fever 17D (YFV) vaccine of adults. While the evidence of their benefit for prevention of malignancies requires substantiation, the observations that vaccinations with BCG and/or vaccinia early in life improved the outcome of patients after surgical therapy of melanoma are of practical relevance as the survival advantage conferred by prior vaccination is greater than any contemporary adjuvant therapy. (Source: BMC Cancer)

Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice.
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 | Virology
Authors: Tretyakova I, Nickols B, Hidajat R, Jokinen J, Lukashevich IS, Pushko P

Duration of post-vaccination immunity against yellow fever in adults.
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0100 | Vaccine
CONCLUSIONS: Eventhough serological correlates of protection for yellow fever are unknown, seronegativity in vaccinated subjects may indicate primary immunisation failure, or waning of immunity to levels below the protection threshold. Immunogenicity of YFV under routine conditions of immunisation services is likely to be lower than in controlled studies. Moreover, infants and toddlers, who comprise the main target group in YF endemic regions, and populations with high HIV infection rates, respond to YFV with lower antibody levels. In those settings one booster dose, preferably sooner than currently recommended, seems to be necessary to ensure longer protection for all vaccinees.

The niche reduction approach: an opportunity for optimal control of infectious diseases in low-income countries?
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0100 | BMC Public Health - Latest articles
DiscussionMeanwhile, although most pathogens appear so difficult to eradicate, it is surprising to realize that human activities are major drivers of the current high rate of extinction among upper organisms through alteration of their ecology and evolution, i.e., their "niche". During the last decades, the accumulation of ecological and evolutionary studies focused on infectious diseases has shown that the niche of a pathogen holds more dimensions than just the immune system targeted by vaccination and treatment. Indeed, it is situated at various intra- and inter- host levels involved on very different spatial and temporal scales. After developing a precise definition of the niche of a pathogen, we detail how major advances in the field of ecology and evolutionary biology of infectious di...

Current perspectives in transfusion‐transmitted infectious diseases: emerging and re‐emerging infections
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0100 | ISBT Science Series
ConclusionsThe process and final product (toolkit) including methods to monitor EID agent emergence, identification/recognition of a transfusion‐transmission threat, methods for quantitative risk assessments, and the appropriate management of such threats should be considered for implementation by all blood systems. (Source: ISBT Science Series)

Subdoses of 17DD yellow fever vaccine elicit equivalent virological/immunological kinetics timeline
Tue, 15 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0100 | BMC Infectious Diseases

Immune activation alters cellular and humoral responses to yellow fever 17D vaccine
Tue, 10 Jun 2014 01:00:07 +0100 | Journal of Clinical Investigation
Conclusion. Together, these results demonstrate that an activated immune microenvironment prior to vaccination impedes efficacy of the YF-17D vaccine in an African cohort and suggest that vaccine regimens may need to be boosted in African populations to achieve efficient immunity.Trial registration. Registration is not required for observational studies.Funding. This study was funded by Canada’s Global Health Research Initiative, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and United States Agency for International Development. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)

[Vaccination and pregnancy.]
Fri, 23 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100 | Presse Medicale
Authors: Anselem O, Parat S, Théau A, Floret D, Tsatsaris V, Goffinet F, Launay O

Scientists predict dengue risk for Brazil World Cup
Mon, 19 May 2014 11:17:00 +0100 | NHS News Feed